Toshiba's A19nm MLC NAND has opened up new opportunities for density and performance increases. Toshiba has responded by releasing a dual-pronged update to their SATA 3.2 (6GB/s) enterprise SSD offerings. The HK3R2 eSSD addresses read-centric workloads with a new higher capacity option (up to 960GB), and enhanced write performance. The HK3R2 is designed for read-centric workloads with one DWPD (Drive Write Per Day) of endurance for five years, satisfying requirements for read caching, video streaming workloads, and general datacenter storage applications.
The HK3E2 is a value-endurance model that utilizes A19nm NAND to deliver up to three DWPD for five years. It addresses mainstream enterprise applications, such as email servers, web servers, database, and indexing workloads. Both SSDs feature similar components to reduce qualification requirements, and similar performance specifications, with the exception of the HK3E2's increase to 30,000 random write IOPS.
Endurance measurements are with a 4KiB random write workload, and are worst-case scenarios due to the nature of the test workload. Mixed random workloads and sequential workloads produce less wear, thus extending endurance beyond rated specifications. The HK3R2 at 960GB offers incredible resilience for a read-centric SSD with 1.76 Petabytes of total endurance. This ranks above the majority of other contenders in the read-centric segment.
The HK3R2 is the second-generation of the Toshiba HK3R Enterprise SSD we recently evaluated. The Toshiba HK3R2 Series comes in capacities of 120, 240, 480, and 960GB in the 2.5" form factor with a 7mm z-height. The HK3R2 utilizes the proprietary Toshiba TC358790XBG controller, and features a 4k random read speed of 75,000 IOPS. 4k random write performance varies by capacity, but tops out at 14,000 IOPS for the 960GB model. The HK3R2 provides a 524 MB/s sequential read rate, but sequential write speed also varies by capacity, topping out at 419 MB/s.
The HK3R2 leverages several key technologies to protect data, and we will take a closer look at these approaches on the following page. In short, Toshiba's proprietary QSBC (Quadruple Swing-By Code) error correction scheme provides an UBER rating of one per 10^17.
Toshiba also has two different levels of power loss protection, and the HK3R2 utilizes both PLP (Power Loss Protection) and PFM (Power Fail Management). Two large capacitors allow the HK3R2 to persist all data from its 1GB of DDR3 DRAM to the NAND in the event of a host power-fail situation. The SSD also features end-to-end data protection, and is designed to be incredibly power efficient with a 16,600 IOPS-per-watt rating.
Two key differentiators in the extremely competitive value-centric SSD market are endurance and data protection techniques. We dive deeper into Toshiba's approach on the following page.
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- Page 1 [Introduction]
- Page 2 [HK3R2 Power Loss Protection and QSBC]
- Page 3 [Toshiba HK3R2 Internals and Specifications]
- Page 4 [Test System and Methodology]
- Page 5 [Benchmarks - 4k Random Read/Write]
- Page 6 [Benchmarks - 8k Random Read/Write]
- Page 7 [Benchmarks - 128k Sequential Read/Write]
- Page 8 [Benchmarks - Database/OLTP and Web Server]
- Page 9 [Benchmarks - Email Server]
- Page 10 [Final Thoughts]