The Canadian government is becoming increasingly concerned that China or Russia could encroach on the Canadian Arctic region. It's a startling concern for the Canadian government, which unlike the United States, UK and other allies, cannot develop and acquire UAVs as quickly.
Canada is unable to acquire drones at a rapid pace, while there is concern the Chinese and Russian governments could launch drones to conduct surveillance operations. The Canadian government is concerned that Russia and China could launch UAVs from ice floes, long-range bombers or submarines - with the Russian military creating small research stations throughout the region.
"Russia and China do not currently possess land-based UAVs capable of conducting (intelligence, surveillance reconnaissance) against the Canadian Arctic," according to an assessment that was released in April 2013. "This limitation could change should UAVs gain aerial refueling capabilities."