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The Simple Antialiasing and Anisotropic Guide

"The Simple Antialiasing and Anisotropic Guide". What is Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering? What does it do for me and my games? Read on!
@TweakTown
Published Sat, Jan 10 2004 11:00 PM CST   |   Updated Tue, Apr 7 2020 12:26 PM CDT
Manufacturer: none

Simple AA and AF Guide - Introduction

Introduction"Antialiasing" and "Anisotropic Filtering" are two phrases which are often bandied about by gamers and 3D graphics enthusiasts with scant regard for those of us who didn't graduate from Geek High.What are these mystical words which seem to make young geeks drool and put fear into the hearts of those with ageing hardware? If you think Antialiasing is a strong dislike of the Jennifer Garner TV series, and Anisotropic is a small region in the South Pacific then I think you might find this guide will help you more than you know.There are already many, many guides and discussions on Antialiasing and/or Anisotropic Filtering available on the Internet - some of which are linked to in this guide - but to be honest I've never truly found one which is both straightforward and up to date. Within these pages lies absolutely no technical mumbo-jumbo, only simple explanations and a no-nonsense look at just what these graphical features really do for the average gamer, both in terms of image quality and performance.Let's roll!

Simple AA and AF Guide - Definitions

Before Going Any FurtherBefore you go any further in this guide, there is something very important you should note. This guide contains many screenshots designed to demonstrate the differences in image quality between various levels of Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering. To do this successfully, the screenshots herein are presented in three formats:400x300 JPG Images - these are the ones that are loaded up with every page. They are not very good for seeing image quality differences, both because of their size and because the JPG picture format is lossy - i.e. the image is not as good as the original.Fullsize JPG Images - when you click on the small images, you will see a fullsize JPG picture, which will show up image quality differences much more clearly. Again there are still some issues associated with the blurring and quality loss which comes with the JPG format. Fullsize PNG Images - for the purist an option is presented under each image to view it as a fullsize PNG picture, which is a lossless format - meaning what you see should be exactly what appeared on my screen when I took the screenshot. This is the best way to examine and compare image quality, particularly at higher levels of AA/AF. The downside is that the PNG files are quite large, ranging from 500kb up to 2MB.Most importantly of all though, to view the images in all their glory if you're using Internet Explorer, go to Tools>Internet Options>Advanced and under the Multimedia section untick the option "Smart Image Dithering" as this automatically blurs online images in an attempt to make them look smoother. Also, if you download any of the images, use something other than Windows Picture and Fax Viewer (the default picture viewer in WinXP) to view the pictures. The Windows Viewer also dithers (blurs) images. Use a professional application like Photoshop, or even Microsoft Photo Viewer or Microsoft Paint to fully experience the image quality. You can do this by right-clicking on the image and choosing "Open With...", then selecting something other than Windows Picture and Fax Viewer for example.I know it seems strange to put this notice right at the start of the guide, but quite frankly it's pointless reading a guide about Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering if you cannot view the true image quality differences clearly for yourself. Simple DefinitionsAlrighty then, as promised here are the simple, straightforward definitions of Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering.Antialiasing: Also called Full Screen Anti-Aliasing (FSAA) or simply Antialiasing (AA) for short. As the name implies, this is a method which counteracts the effects of aliasing. What's Aliasing? Well aliasing is the jaggedness and pixelation you see on computer images - particularly noticeable on things like the straight edges of walls, or the outline of buildings and terrain in 3D games. These jagged edges can even "sparkle" somewhat when you are moving around in a 3D environment. That effect can be overcome in two ways: by increasing the resolution at which your game displays (e.g. from 640x480 to 1024x768), and by the use of Antialiasing, or both. When AA is enabled, it uses your graphics card's hardware to blend the edges of the jagged lines and hence produce a smoother image.
The higher the level of Antialiasing applied (usually in steps of 2x, 4x, 6x and 8x), the progressively smoother the image, but the greater the strain on your graphics card in recalculating the image to produce these smoother images. Also, the higher the level of AA the greater the blurriness you may notice, and the graphics may in fact become too "cartoon smooth" in appearance.While this is a relatively simple definition, other definitions of Antialiasing, including those which are more technical can be found here, here, here and here.Anisotropic Filtering: Also referred to simply as Anisotropic (or AF) for short. This is a method which makes textures (the surfaces of all 3D objects) appear cleaner and crisper. Raising the resolution of a game is one way of improving texture appearance, however textures receding into the distance may still become noticeably blurry and their finer features may become indistinguishable even at very high resolutions. Anisotropic Filtering is used to enhance the details of textures, and to reduce the blurriness which occurs on textures that are further away. Examine the two screenshots below, paying particular attention to the grid pattern in the distance. Clearly the use of high level Anisotropic Filtering in the lower image has removed virtually all the blurriness visible in the top image, particularly for more distant textures.
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The higher the level of Anisotropic Filtering applied, the clearer the textures will appear, but the greater the strain on your graphics card in filtering the image to produce the clearer representation of textures. Also, at very high levels of AF the clarity of distant textures may be unrealistically high.While this is a relatively simple definition, other definitions of Anisotropic Filtering, including those which are more technical can be found here, here, here, and here.Ok, so that wasn't too painful to read through, was it? I think it's pretty clear that in gaming you use AA to reduce the "jaggies", while you use AF to sharpen up blurry surfaces. Obviously the two can be combined to produce 3D graphics with both smooth outlines and crisper surfaces. The next section concentrates on how you can accurately adjust your AA and AF settings for your particular graphics card, and what the different settings mean.

Simple AA and AF Guide - Accessing Settings

Adjusting Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering settingsNow that you know what Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering are capable of, you might want to know more about how you can adjust the settings on your particular system to make full use of them. Depending on whether you have an ATi-based card or an Nvidia-based card, refer to the relevant section below for detailed instructions:nVidia Graphics Cards:This section assumes you have the latest nVidia Forceware graphics drivers, which are currently at version 53.03 at the time of this writing. If you don't, you can download the latest version here.To access the AA and AF settings you must go to Start>Control Panel>Display Properties>Settings and click the Advanced button. This brings up the nVidia Display Properties box, wherein you can adjust all your graphics settings. For full details of what each setting does see this document.The AA/AF settings will be found under the tab which has your particular graphics card's name (e.g. "GeForce FX 5900 Ultra"). The Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering settings you choose here will apply to both OpenGL and Direct3D games (basically that means all games).
AntialiasingUnder the Antialiasing settings area, if the "Application Controlled" box is ticked, then the level of Antialiasing used in each game is determined by the Antialiasing settings in that particular game. If a game has no options for Antialiasing in the in-game menus, then Antialiasing will not be used (i.e. the default is Off, or 0x). If a game does have options to set AA in-game, you can adjust those settings and they will take effect only when you run that particular game, and will not apply to any other game or application. That means you can set different levels of Antialiasing for each game.If the "Application Controlled" box is unticked, a range of options will be ungreyed on the slider bar beneath it. If you select Off, then no Antialiasing will be used in any games, regardless of their in-game settings.If you select 2x, or higher, then this level of Antialiasing will be forced upon all games and applications. Note that the higher the level of AA chosen, the greater the performance penalty, but the smoother the jagged lines become. Note also that the 2xQuincunx method of Antialiasing (denoted by 2xQ) is almost as good as 4xAA, but with a lesser performance hit. If certain Antialiasing modes are not available to you, that is because your particular graphics card is not capable of using them.Finally, if you choose 2xAA in the control panel for example, and then set 2xAA in a particular game, this will not result in a "combined" Antialiasing of 4xAA. The game will only use 2xAA as forced by the setting in the nVidia Control Panel.Anisotropic FilteringThe use of the Anisotropic Filtering options is much the same as the Antialiasing options described above. Just as with Antialiasing, there is a performance penalty for each successively higher level of AF used.ATi Graphics Cards:This section assumes you have the latest ATi Catalyst graphics drivers, which are currently at version 3.10 at the time of this writing. If you don't, you can download the latest version here. It's also very important that you install the ATi Control Panel so you can access these settings as well as a range of other useful ones. For more details on correct installation and setup of the Catalysts, refer to my recent ATi Catalyst Installation Guide.To access the AA and AF settings you must go to Start>Control Panel>Display Properties>Settings and click the Advanced button. This brings up the ATi Display Properties box, wherein you can adjust all your graphics settings.The AA/AF settings will be found under the 3D tab. There are separate settings for Direct3D and OpenGL-based games under this tab. You will have to check each game's documentation to determine whether it runs under OpenGL or Direct3D. Generally speaking, most games run under Direct3D, but games such as Quake3, Jedi Academy, Knights of the Old Republic, the Wolfenstein/Enemy Territory series and Call of Duty for example run in OpenGL. Note further that with almost all games you cannot choose which mode it will run under - games are programmed to run under either Direct3D or OpenGL, not both.To access the advanced AA/AF settings you will first need to select either the Direct3D or OpenGL item, tick the "Use custom settings" box, then click the Custom button. Since both Direct3D and OpenGL sections have the same options for AA/AF settings, I will only cover them once here, but bear in mind that the settings under the Direct3D section will have no impact whatsoever on OpenGL games, and vice versa.
AntialiasingUnder the Antialiasing settings area, if the "Application Preference" box is ticked, then the level of Antialiasing used in each particular game is determined by the Antialiasing settings in that game. If a game has no options for Antialiasing in the in-game menus, then Antialiasing will not be used (i.e. the default is Off or 0x). If a game does have options to set AA in-game, you can adjust those settings and they will take effect only when you run that particular game, and will not apply to another other game or application.For ATI cards, the only way to turn Off Antialiasing by default is to tick the Application Preference box. There is no "0x" setting, so if the box is unticked then Antialiasing is operating at the very least at 2x level. If the Application Preference box is unticked and you select 2x, or higher, then this level of Antialiasing will apply to all games and applications. Note that the higher the level of AA chosen, the greater the performance penalty, but the smoother the jagged lines become (and perhaps more blurry also). Maximum Antialiasing available for ATi cards is 6x.Finally if you choose 2xAA in the control panel for example, and then set 2xAA in a particular game, this will not result in a "combined" Antialiasing of 4xAA. The game will only use 2xAA as forced by the setting in the ATi Control Panel.Anisotropic FilteringThe use of the Anisotropic Filtering options is much the same as the Antialiasing options described above. Just as with Antialiasing, there is a performance penalty for each successively higher level of AF used. For ATi cards, the only way to turn Off Anisotropic Filtering by default is to tick the Application Preference box. There is no "0x" setting, so if the box is unticked then Anisotropic Filtering is operating at the very least at 2x level.Quality and Performance AF ModesYou may notice there is a choice of Quality or Performance AF modes available just above the AF slider bar. If you choose Quality over Performance, the quality of the AF is supposedly superior to that under the Performance mode, but at the cost of relatively reduced performance. A close-up comparison of the two modes is provided below using a screenshot from Knights of the Old Republic (see below):
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As you can see, the performance and visual quality difference between the two modes is indistinguishable (at least to me), but it's worth noting that the performance difference is some 4fps, which is around 10%. Generally speaking, I have examined "Performance" vs. "Quality" AF modes closely in various games and I cannot tell the difference between the two. Note that throughout the rest of this guide I use "Quality" mode for all AF comparisons.Finally, regardless of the brand of graphics card you can enable both Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering at the same time, and at different levels (e.g. 0xAA and 4xAF, or 6xAA and 2xAF) - neither setting will conflict with the other, although clearly the visual and performance results will differ based on the combination you choose. These impacts are examined in detail in the next section.

Simple AA and AF Guide - AA & AF Comparisons

Image Quality & Performance ComparisonsThere is no hard and fast rule for precisely how much of a performance impact the various levels of AF and/or AA will bring with them, nor how much of a visual quality improvement you will see. It all depends on the particular game's resolution, your graphics card, and the complexity of settings and details in the game you are using.To provide you with an indication of the type of image quality and performance impacts you can expect with different levels of AA and AF, I have compiled comprehensive screenshots of two recent games (one OpenGL and one Direct3D) running at progressively higher levels of AA and AF, and combinations thereof. Note that your performance will vary depending on how much more/less powerful your system is compared to the test system used.Test System SetupAll the results shown in this guide were taken from games running on the following (non-overclocked) system:Intel Pentium 4 2.66GHzAsus P4G8X Deluxe MotherboardGigacube 128MB Radeon 9800 Pro AGP8xSoundBlaster Audigy1GB Corsair PC3200-LL 80GB Seagate Barracuda V SATAWindows XP Professional SP13.10 ATi CatalystsMore details of the system here.Aside from the AA and AF settings noted for each screenshot, the remaining settings in the ATi Control Panel were set to maximum possible quality, while VSync was set to Application Preference and TruForm and Fast Writes were off. The Windows XP install was optimized using my WinXP Tweaking: From Reformat to Relax guide, and no background applications were running aside from Hypersnap-DX5 (for taking screenshots) and FRAPS (for consistent measurement of framerates). The framerate for each screenshot is shown in the top right corner in yellow.Note that despite the fact that these screenshots all come from a 9800 Pro, most objective reviews which have examined the issue of ATi vs. nVidia image quality generally consider that although nVidia cards generally have slightly better AF, and ATi cards have better DX9 image quality, the image quality is almost identical nonetheless. At the same time though, ATi and nVidia cards have (sometimes dramatically) different performance levels with AA and AF at different resolutions in different games. Therefore the results below should be fairly accurate indicators of image quality impacts for either brand of card when using the same AA/AF settings, but the performance impacts will vary, firstly on the brand of card you're using, and more importantly on how powerful it is. For example a 64MB GeForce3 will not have the same performance as a 128MB FX5600 which in turn will not perform as well as a 128MB 9800 Pro. And since a 9800 Pro is one of the fastest cards available at the time of writing and its hardware is fairly optimized for AA/AF performance, most lower end and older cards will definitely experience much greater performance impacts than that shown below.Finally, I don't want to enter into a long discussion or debate about which brand or particular card is better than another. That is beyond the scope of this guide. If you're interested in seeing how well all the various graphics cards perform, both with and without AA and AF, in a variety of games, take a look at this December 2003 article: Tom's Hardware VGA Charts IIIIt contains all the specifications, tables of results and rankings you need to figure out which card does what, and how fast, and help you determine which graphics card is best for your particular budget and gaming tastes.On the next page are the screenshots and results for our first test game, America's Army.

Simple AA and AF Guide - America's Army

Game: America's Army
Version: 2.0.0aAPI: Direct3DGame Resolution Used: 800x600 and 1600x1200In-Game Settings: Everything set to maximum possible, except Blob Shadows, and 32 Channel EAX sound.Official Website: America's Army SiteTweakTown Tweak Guide: Available hereAmerica's Army is a free, state-of-the-art online 3D first person shooter. It uses the Unreal engine, which was developed for Unreal Tournament 2003, but which also powers other games like Rainbow Six: Raven Shield. Therefore the image quality and performance shown here will be similar (but not necessarily identical) to that in other games based on Unreal.The map I'm using is called SF Hospital, one of the most graphically intensive maps in the game. I've used a relatively low resolution of 800x600 here, firstly to demonstrate how AA and AF can dramatically improve low resolution image quality, but secondly because this game is quite system intensive, and many people will not be able to get playable framerates at higher resolutions with any sort of AA/AF enabled.Scroll down and examine the various screenshots below to see the performance and image quality impacts. Remember, even though the small JPG shots below may not look vastly different, examining the fullsize JPGs and PNG images will show marked differences.
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Some things to note from the above screenshots:- The performance difference between the screenshots can be confusing. It looks like there is better performance as AA levels rise. This is not true, it was purely due to slight variations in the framerate even while I was standing still (intermittent storm effects on the map caused this) - performance continually fluctuated between 40-48fps. Basically since the resolution was so low (and hence the data on screen much less), no amount of AA or AF can slow down the Radeon 9800 Pro noticeably. As noted, lower-end graphics systems will show lower performance and a clearer performance impact between the various levels of AA/AF, even at 800x600.- 2x AA brings a very noticeable improvement to the jagged appearance of the visuals displayed at 800x600. Notice the rooflines, telephone poles and hanging phone lines are much less jagged than before. Some visible blurring is noticeable around the edges of these newly smoothed out lines, but at 4xAA and then 6xAA this blurring is reduced. - However at 6xAA and 0xAF while running around in the game I noticed that everything in general seemed much too smooth and blurry, almost washed out. At that level of AA the game had gone from realistic to almost "cartoonish" in quality.- The visual quality difference between various levels of AF was not as dramatic, but still noticeable. The areas to look for are the improvements in crispness in the concrete textures, and the brick paving on the road toward the top left, the bark on the palm trees, the leaves of the palm trees in the distance, the gun, and the white hospital sign on the right. Again, even 2xAF made a noticeable improvement, with 16xAF only slightly better.After some experimentation, I believe a good combination of Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering for this game at 800x600, both in terms of performance and image quality is 4xAA and 8xAF. The screenshot below shows how much of an improvement this combination is over the initial (0xAA 0xAF) image above.
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Obviously however if you are using faster hardware it might be more sensible to raise the resolution in lieu of high AA/AF settings. The following screenshot demonstrates the image quality difference and performance impact of going to 1600x1200 with 0xAA and 0xAF:
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On a 9800 Pro there appears to be no real performance impact from the resolution change, but the visuals seem generally superior to 800x600 with 4xAA and 8xAF. More importantly, while running around in game the use of a higher resolution provides greater realism over any amount of AA/AF usage at lower resolutions.A tabular comparison of the performance of America's Army at 800x600 and 1600x1200 is provided below at various levels of AA/AF. While at 800x600 the hardware was by no means challenged, at 1600x1200 successively higher AA and AF levels brought the card to its knees. At 6xAA for example the game would be unplayable because in combat situations the extra stress of lots of players onscreen, additional sound and visual effects etc. would reduce the fps to single digits.
These performance figures are indicative only. On the next page are the screenshots and results for our second test game, Knights of the Old Republic.

Simple AA and AF Guide - KOTOR

Game: Knights of the Old Republic
Version: 1.01API: OpenGLGame Resolution Used: 1280x960 and 1600x1200In-Game Settings: Everything set to maximum possible, including EAX3.Official Website: BioWare KOTOR SiteTweakTown Tweak Guide: None. Want one?In contrast with America's Army, Knights of the Old Republic (KOTOR) is a 3D third person role-playing game based in the Star Wars universe. The game uses a proprietary new engine called Odyssey, which means it is reasonably unique, although other BioWare games may well come to be based on versions of it. I used a moderately high resolution of 1280x960 here both to show the performance hit more clearly than the America's Army example, and to demonstrate the benefits (or perhaps the lack thereof) of using successively higher levels of AA/AF at higher resolutions.Scroll down and examine the various screenshots below to see the performance and image quality impacts. Remember, even though the small JPG shots below may not look vastly different, examining the fullsize JPGs and PNG images will show marked differences.
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Some things to note from the above screenshots:- At this higher resolution of 1280x960 the impact of 2xAA is still very noticeable both on image quality and performance. In terms of image quality, for obvious changes look at the fuel line near the character's feet, the roofline underneath the sun and the legs of the nearby Customs Officer. The use of 2xAA at this resolution helps clear up most of the jaggies very well. However it also drops performance by almost 20%. At 4xAA the jaggedness is all but completely gone, but again at the cost of performance. By the time 6xAA is used distant objects appear overly smooth and blurry - Perhaps the use of AF will help "crispen" up the image. Of course by the time 6xAA is being used, fps is already dangerously low. - The use of Anisotropic most prominently shows up in a progressively sharper ground. The cracks in the mud become clearer, at first just up to the fuel line with 2xAF, then just beyond it with 4xAF until by 16xAF the ground texture details are quite clear up to the wall. Also slightly noticeable is the improvement in the details of the railings under the character's feet, although it takes 16xAF to really make a difference to them. Then again the performance difference between 0xAF and 16xAF is around 25%.Since the benefits of 2xAA and 4xAF seemed quite clear, I tried this combination together to see the performance and visual quality impact. The screenshot below shows that this combination is both a very noticeable improvement over the initial (0xAA 0xAF) image above, and the performance impact is still not overly dramatic (from 31 to 24fps):
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Given the already high resolution of 1280x960, it seems unnecessary to use a higher combination, but I tried 4xAA and 8xAF out of curiosity and the performance hit was dramatic - with an almost 60% drop, from 31 to 14fps. At this framerate any extra details onscreen would drop fps down to single digits making the game unplayable. In light of our previous experiment in America's Army I next focused on raising the resolution to see the benefits of higher resolution vs. high AA/AF. Given the game was already running at 1280x960, a rise to 1600x1200 was not a dramatic resolution jump but provided interesting results:
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If you compare this image to the one posted just above it (1280x960 at 2xAA 4xAF) you will see the performance is similar, but I believe the image quality of the 1280x960 shot is far better than the 1600x1200. For starters the use of even 2xAA at a lower resolution seems to outweigh a simple bump in resolution to 1600x1200. More importantly, the use of 4xAF gives a minimal performance hit, but makes the textures far cleaner to the eye. I personally would prefer the 1280x960 with 2xAA 4xAF over the 1600x1200 with 0xAA 0xAF.Below is a tabular comparison of the performance of Knights of the Old Republic at 1280x960 at various levels of AA/AF. I didn't provide 1600x1200 comparisons because the pattern of performance hits is already quite clear in the existing data, and quite frankly at 1600x1200 and 6xAA for example, KOTOR is dipping into single digits and unplayable. Once again, remember that the fps provided below are indicative of performance only, and quite obviously the more details, effects and action there is on screen, the lower the fps will go, especially with higher AA/AF settings.
In the next section we go over our findings about AA/AF, provide some more suggestions on its usage and wrap up with concluding thoughts about the whole exercise.

Simple AA and AF Guide - Conclusion

ConclusionThroughout this guide I've attempted to familiarize you as simply as possible with the features of Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering. While these methods have been around for quite a while in fields like photography and printing, 3D gaming has only recently benefited from their introduction to mainstream graphics cards, and their incorporation as an option in games and graphics drivers.Despite their somewhat complex-sounding names, we find they have a very simple and very practical use for us gamers: to make the pretty pictures we see on our screens even prettier! The comparison exercise I went through in this guide should have left you with a few important impressions about AA and AF:- The use of AA and AF can really enhance 3D games, even at modest levels like 2xAA and 2xAF. The way in which both low and high resolution graphics benefit from AA and AF is unmistakable. However conversely the image quality difference between medium and high levels of AA (i.e. 4xAA and 6xAA) and medium to high levels of AF (i.e. 8xAF and 16xAF) appears negligible, and are far outweighed by the steep performance impacts.- The use of AA and AF can bring with it heavy performance penalties on older graphics cards. Remember that the graphics card used in this guide (Radeon 128MB 9800 Pro) is currently one of the fastest performing graphics cards available, any older or slower card will most definitely experience a greater performance penalty from using AA and AF than that shown here. Be mindful of this.- AA and AF work well under both OpenGL and Direct3D, and with similar results in terms of image quality impacts. While some games have in-game options for enabling AA/AF, virtually any game can be forced to use AA/AF by the use of the settings in the graphics card control panel. Note however that a handful of games specifically mention that use of forced Antialiasing and/or Anisotropic can cause significant problems (e.g. Halo and its issues with AA), so in such cases disable AA and AF for optimal, trouble-free performance. If in doubt read the online notes which accompany most games.- Sometimes it is wiser to use a lower resolution and moderate to low amounts of AA and AF than it is to simply use a higher resolution without any AA and AF. In our KOTOR example, I personally believe the image quality of 1280x960 with 2xAA 4xAF is superior to 1600x1200 with 0xAA 0xAF, despite similar performance levels.- AA and AF can be used to greatly improve the visuals of older games with minimal performance costs. Given older games are less system intensive, you should be able to apply moderate to high levels of AA and AF with no significant drop in framerate. Furthermore, some games are restricted in their choice of maximum resolution (e.g. a max of 1024x768), and use of AA and AF can dramatically improve image quality for such games in place of a resolution increase.- The performance impact of "Quality" Anisotropic Filtering (at least for ATi cards) appears to outweigh any image quality advantages over "Performance" AF. If you want to gain extra fps when using AF without any real change in image quality, enable "Performance" mode in the graphics card control panel.- Finally, if you're simply after the fastest performance in your games, and benchmarks like 3DMark, then make sure that for ATi cards the "Application Preference" boxes are ticked for both AA and AF, under both OpenGL and Direct3D tabs. For Nvidia cards set AA and AF to 0x each on the appropriate sliders. This ensures that you're not using any Antialiasing or Anisotropic Filtering, which people often overlook when searching for extra fps or when experiencing strange slowdowns.Well I guess that's about it. Another of my fantabulous guides comes to a close, hopefully having left you, the reader, with more knowledge than when you first clicked open these pages. Keep in mind that this guide was written as a relatively simple, straightforward look at Antialiasing and Anisotropic Filtering, both of which are very complex subjects in their own right. As such there are bound to be geeks out there who are howling for my blood for not mentioning things like Multisampling and 3dfx, or for not having a multitude of 3D wireframe diagrams and deep discussions about texels. As we speak they're angrily munching on their breakfast burritos saying "Worst. Guide. Ever". Fair enough, but I made the aim of my guide clear.For the rest of you, if you want to provide me with constructive feedback, complain about the size of the pictures in the guide, or just say hi, click my name at the top of this guide and shoot me an email....I'd love to hear from you! Take care guys.

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