System Optimization - IntroductionIntroduction
System Optimization - Hardware SetupOk the layout for this guide is simple - we have to start at the very heart of your PC and work our way outwards from there. That means starting with the hardware, then moving on to the BIOS and ultimately the software such as operating system and drivers. If you really want a tight, fast, stable rig then you will need to shore up each department. The latest drivers won't do anything if the problem lies with a faulty graphics card, poor overclocking or incorrect BIOS settings.Where I refer to other guides/utilities/sites I highly recommend you take time out and read them. I don't just throw in links for the hell of it - this is stuff I use myself to optimize my system and so far it's worked extremely well for me, so I'm sharing the wealth.Hardware SetupThe first thing to do is to make sure that your PC is physically operating correctly and that no hardware is faulty or badly set up. Just because your computer boots up into Windows and everything seems ok, doesn't mean your PC is set up 100% correctly or that the hardware is working to its fullest potential.- How Do I Know What I've Got?If you've bought a pre-built computer and you have no real idea exactly what's "in the box" then the first thing you have to do is get all your system specifications. Ideally you should have a listing of each component, its manufacturer/brand, model number, and details such as amount of onboard memory. If this is not available to you, or you just want to be sure, download SiSoft Sandra, which is a free benchmarking and system information utility, and run the relevant modules such as Mainboard Information, Video System Information, Sound Card Information, etc. There you'll see the exact specifications of the components, and you should note these down for future reference.You should also note if you've got a pre-built PC and little knowledge of PCs in general, that the following information can potentially be harmful to your system, so please don't open up your case, fumble around, break the pins on your CPU, then email me angrily saying you're going to sue. Read, read, read...then do!- Correct SetupI recently built a PC and foolishly forgot to connect one of the obscure power connectors on the motherboard. Others with the same motherboard tell me it's a common mistake, but my PC seemed to be working fine initially. It did explain the occasional crashes I got in games though, and once I plugged in the extra connector - no more crashes.By now the above example's got you thinking "so why am I listening to this guy?" My point is that it's easy for anyone to make a mistake when building a PC. Overlooking a connector, not setting a dipswitch correctly or not using the right type of cable are common mistakes. You can be thankful that one of the PC world's authorities, Tom's Hardware, has a recent 2-part guide on building your own PC which I recommend to everyone:Building Your Own PC - Part 1Building Your Own PC - Part 2Even if you still think your PC is rock solid, there are a lot of great tips in those guides. Pay particular attention to their instructions on how to properly connect a hard drive and CD-ROM/DVD drive. This is something I see done incorrectly by a lot of first-time PC builders, or for people who've added drives to an existing pre-built machine. The optimal primary/secondary master/slave configuration is very important to getting the best performance out of your drives.
System Optimization - BIOS OptimizationBIOS OptimizationThe BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a program held on a small chip on your motherboard. It provides the instructions for what your PC should do as soon as it turns on. Your BIOS is independent of your operating system, which means that it is not affected by which operating system you use, or which version of drivers you've installed, or what your settings are in Windows for example. The BIOS supersedes all of that, and your drivers and operating system will load well after the BIOS has loaded up. The BIOS basically controls a range of hardware-related features and is the "middle-man" between your CPU and all the attached devices in your system. All of this means that if there is an incorrect setting in your BIOS - that is a setting which is not optimal or correct for your hardware configuration - then you will have problems regardless of what you change in Windows, or which driver version you install.- POSTAs your BIOS starts to load, the first thing it does is the Power-On Self Test (POST), a diagnostic program which checks your components and makes sure everything is present and working OK. POST is usually extremely fast - blink and you'll miss it. You will only really notice it if it stops when encountering an error. POST error messages can be a bit obscure, but usually give you a lead as to where to look in your BIOS settings. A quick general guide to what the POST error beeps mean is here, but a more accurate indication is found in your motherboard's manual. If you have no POST errors you will see your PC's startup screen, which shows such information as your BIOS type (e.g. Award), the key to press to access your BIOS settings (e.g. DEL, ESC or F2), the type of processor and its speed, RAM amount and RAM test, drive information, and so on. Note if any of this information is clearly incorrect, it may be that your hardware is extremely new and hence not recognized correctly by the BIOS, you've overclocked your PC too far, or you have bad BIOS settings.At this point, if you quickly press the indicated key (usually DEL) repeatedly you can access your BIOS settings. If your BIOS has a password then you'll have to enter it first to access your BIOS settings. If you've forgotten the password, then try the following site. Definitive BIOS Optimization Guide. The guide covers what each setting actually does, and when used in conjunction with your motherboard's user manual arms you with the information you need to figure out the best settings for your individual hardware configuration. I do want to make special mention of RAM related settings, as it is almost a form of overclocking if you choose RAM timings which are faster than your RAM supports by default (see the above BIOS Guide for an explanation of RAM timings). Usually, your RAM default timings are determined by SPD (Serial Presence Detection). You can change these timings to increase RAM performance, but this can often cause problems along the same lines as overclocking other components (see the Overclocking section). Just keep in mind that if you're having any problems it could be the RAM timings as much as anything else.- BIOS UpdatesThe BIOS is actually written on an EPROM (Eraseable Programmable Read Only Memory) chip, which means that it can be updated with new information. Motherboard manufacturers often release new BIOS versions which can improve performance, stability and compatibility, add new features or modify existing features, and fix known bugs. These new BIOS versions are available for download on the manufacturer's website, and I've provided a link to the support sites of the most common motherboard manufacturers below:- ABIT- ASUS- DFI- EPoX- Gigabyte- Intel- Iwill- MSI- Shuttle- VIAGo to your manufacturer's site, download the latest BIOS for your exact motherboard model and follow the instructions on the site to "flash" (update) the chip on your motherboard with this new BIOS. A word of warning - flashing the BIOS can be tricky. If something goes wrong and your PC won't boot up then you may have to take your motherboard to a dealer to have the EPROM chip replaced, so when updating your BIOS follow the instructions to the letter. In particular, make sure your PC is not overclocked when flashing the BIOS.If you're feeling game, there are enthusiast-modified BIOS out there which may provide added functionality and performance beyond manufacturer's specifications. One place to download such BIOS is BIOSMods, but remember that playing around with BIOS is a risky thing, so take care.It's important to have the latest BIOS simply because it can help improve your PC's performance while at the same time ensuring that any known bugs with the hardware have been resolved.
System Optimization - OverclockingOverclockingI'm going to run through the basics of overclocking, and the impact it has on games. If you're a veteran overclocker bear with me.- What Is Overclocking?Overclocking is the process of increasing the clock speed of a component of your PC. The "clock" referred to is a specialised oscillator pulsing with a frequency that determines the rate at which a processor can perform instructions. A 2 Gigahertz Pentium 4 for example has a frequency of oscillation of around 2 billion pulses per second. The theory of overclocking is simple: increase this clock speed and you'll increase the rate at which instructions are performed - ergo you have a faster PC. This is similar to the way in which increasing the revs on an internal combustion engine means it can work faster. It's interesting to note that just like the engine, a PC which is now running faster will often also require more fuel (voltage) and cooling to perform correctly, otherwise just like the engine you risk overheating, a shut down, or even permanent damage. At the very least, it is well known that overclocking - depending on component tolerance and cooling - will reduce the life of your components, even if this is as trivial as getting 5 years out of a CPU instead of 10. On the other hand, if done correctly and within reason, overclocking will give a noticeable system performance boost for at most the cost of some extra cooling. In practice system overclocking is usually done by increasing the Front Side Bus (FSB) speed in the BIOS. The FSB is the main pathway between your major system components, and as the FSB speed increases, information is transferred back and forth more rapidly as all your major components work off this bus speed. However there are certain problems with increasing the FSB. To start with, some components running off this bus, such as your AGP graphics card and PCI devices (e.g. Sound card) operate at a much lower bus speed by default, so your motherboard has special Dividers/Multipliers to maintain the PCI and AGP bus speeds at or close to their default (typically ~ 33Mhz for PCI and 66Mhz for AGP). As you increase the FSB, your CPU speed will increase. Your RAM speed may also increase (depending on the memory divider/multiplier), which increases the amount of information the RAM can transfer back and forth with the CPU (referred to as Bandwidth). This improves performance but increases the stress on your RAM. At the same time, depending on your PCI/AGP dividers, the bus speeds on your graphics card and PCI devices may also increase. These devices can malfunction at higher bus speeds. All the while, as your system speed increases, at some point certain components, particularly the CPU but to some extent the RAM and AGP port, will require more voltage to fuel this increased performance. You can increase the voltage through your BIOS, but greater voltage equals greater heat, for which the standard cooling on your components - typically a metal heatsink with a fan on top - will no longer be adequate. Now you begin to appreciate the delicate balancing act which is overclocking!For more information on FSB overclocking, check out our FSB Overclocking Guide, and for more on how heatsink cooling works, try our Heatsink Theory Guide. That's just the start. If you're interested, start searching for more information on overclocking.Beginner's Guide to Overclocking at Overclockers.com, a good site to pursue this topic, and this basic Overclocking Help Guide. We also have a Beginner's Guide to Overclocking nVidia Video Cards here at TweakTown which will show how a video card can be overclocked. Note that along with the utilities mentioned in that guide, I highly recommend RivaTuner for overclocking and tweaking your nVidia based video card, or PowerStrip for ATi (and nVidia) cards.The main aim of covering overclocking here is to give you some guidance on the impact of overclocking when optimizing your system, particularly for gaming.- Overclocking and GamesOverclocking is a strange thing indeed. It's as much luck as it is science. Two people with identical systems will achieve different levels of overclock successfully (i.e. with stability and performance) due to factors such as different build qualities/dates of the components, different environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and humidity, different BIOS versions/settings, and finally different operating system and driver settings.It's important to remember therefore that even if you've heard of "the same" machine as yours running at much higher speeds, your system could be limited by a number of factors and therefore you just might be pushing it too far in trying to reach this "guaranteed" speed. Any time you overclock your system you are pushing it beyond specifications, so don't be surprised if this manifests itself in some very strange and unpredictable ways. Everyone who overclocks is familiar with some of the more noticeable problems of an unstable overclock: system freezes/resets/crashes to desktop, Windows blue screen errors (also called the Blue Screen Of Death - BSOD), registry corruption errors, PC not loading up or stopping part-way through loading, PC not even getting past POST (with beeping errors), and so forth.While some of the above are clearly due to overclocking, some people don't realise that less frequent freezing/resets, strange application behaviour (not starting correctly, crashing to desktop at some point, flickering, graphical glitches, strange AI behaviour), corrupt downloaded files, corrupted files copied to/from the hard drive and/or CD/DVD-ROM, badly burnt CDRWs etc. are the more subtle signs of overclocking-related errors. This is something you should not put up with. There's no reason why your system can't be stable 99% of the time, especially if you run a recent operating system like Windows XP.
System Optimization - Overclocking (Part 2)Overclocking (Continued)- Stress TestingThere's a point at which your system is "over"-overclocked for the combination of components and cooling you've got. The trick is determining exactly when is "too far", especially with the somewhat misleading guidance from some overclockers along the lines of "If it's not on fire, it can go higher". Here are some helpful free tools which should help you determine whether your system is acceptably stable at your current level of overclock:- 3DMark2003 - A graphical benchmarking tool, can also be used to determine whether your system will be stable for gaming. Leave it on default settings and run it several times in a row. If your PC has frozen or rebooted, crashed back to the desktop, or you can clearly see texture flickering or small glitches ("artifacts") or dots appearing randomly ("sparkles") then your system is overclocked too far. Try additional cooling, and failing that simply scale back the overclock on either your video card and/or your CPU.Futuremark site.- RthDribl - that stands for Real-Time High Dynamic Range Image-Based Lighting. If you have a recent graphics card with full support for DirectX9.0, specifically Pixel Shader version 2.0 then this demo will use those features to render truly amazing lighting and details on a range of models, with a range of backgrounds. Running this demo in fullscreen mode at high resolution will stress your graphics card and if left to run for a while will show up instabilities in the form of lockups, crashes, or artifacts. Definitely worth a spin if your system is up to it.Codecreatures - Another good graphical benchmarking similar to 3DMark, which also doubles as a stress test for your system. Run the benchmark several times and again if your system crashes or displays anomalies then you've overclocked too far.- Prime95 - A program which will effectively stress test your CPU and memory subset. Once you've installed the application, to run the actual stress test run Prime95.exe and choose the Just Stress Testing button. Next, under the Options menu select Torture Test to start testing. Also read the document Stress.txt that comes with the program when you get the chance. It will explain more about CPU stress testing and how Prime95 helps uncover instability. The program recommends running the torture test for between 6 - 24 hours. A heavily overclocked PC may crash within a few minutes of running the test, however if your PC lasts over 2 hours it should be stable enough for gaming.- SiSoft Sandra - Sandra is a benchmarking and system information utility which is quite handy. Once you've installed Sandra, it has a range of modules for providing system information, but some are primarily for benchmarking and stress testing. Run the Burn-In Wizard module and you'll see that it allows you to select any or all of the 6 major benchmarking modules in Sandra. If you then continue, it will allow you to choose the number of times you wish to run these tests, or to simply run them continuously until stopped. I recommend running all but the File System and CD-ROM/DVD benchmarks in a continuous loop for at least 2 hours to test for stability. As always, if your system crashes or freezes at any point you know something's not right with your overclock. If you want to pinpoint the problem, try running individual modules on a loop (such as the CPU Arithmetic Benchmark by itself) and if there's a failure you'll have a better idea of which component is to blame.Memtest86 - Memtest86 is a memory test for x86 architecture systems (Intel). It tests your memory before anything else loads up, so it really is a good stress test/check of your actual RAM and memory subset. To use Memtest download the latest zip file and extract the contents. Run the Install.bat file from the archive and enter a blank 1.44MB floppy as prompted. To run Memtest, leave the floppy in the drive and reboot your system - it will run from the floppy.- DocMemory - A memory testing utility which can identify RAM-specific problems by stress testing your memory. You will have to install the program on a floppy disk, then reboot your system booting from this floppy. Upon reboot it will start DocMem and default to the Stress Test mode. Simply choose the Test button to start the testing. If you have any crashes or errors then it's quite clear the problem is with your RAM.Of course, if you have any current games with a demo mode or a benchmarking utility (such as Benchmark.exe in Unreal Tournament 2003) then I suggest running those for a lengthy period of time as well to see how stable your system is in a 'real world' gaming environment.The aim of any system, overclocked or not, should be a combination of stability and performance, not one or the other. There's no point having a blindingly fast system if it crashes most of the time. Forget PC benchmarking "drag races" or bragging rights, the ultimate aim of a computer for every day use is to run your programs quickly and dependably. By the same token - and the reason why this guide was written - there's no point having great hardware if you're not going to work it to its full potential, so I am by no means saying that you shouldn't overclock - just that you should do it correctly.
System Optimization - Operating SystemOperating SystemWe've worked our way from the hardware to the software, and the most important piece of software on your system is the Operating System (OS). The OS is the interface between you the user and the hardware and peripherals of your system. It takes your inputs and converts them into information the hardware can understand, and vice versa. For many years this was a Microsoft OS by the name of DOS (Disk Operating System). It consisted of plain black screen with green or white text, and the only input device was the keyboard. DOS holds some fond memories for the older ones among us, but Windows - although the earlier versions were somewhat unstable at times - is infinitely more friendly and easy-to-use.Quite obviously optimizing your OS is imperative to a fast stable system. Below I provide resources and advice on how best to do that for your particular OS.- Linux
System Optimization - Operating System (Part 2)Operating System (Continued)- Windows Millennium Edition
System Optimization - Device DriversDevice DriversA Device Driver (or simply Driver for short) is a program which controls a specific hardware device on your system. Your OS should already have built into it all the drivers necessary to communicate adequately with devices which were around at or around the time your OS came out. The issue then is why should you update your drivers? Updating a driver may be required due to one or more of the following basic reasons:1. Your device may be much newer than your operating system.2. Your device may have features which were not activated in the original set of drivers.3. Your device may have "bugs" (problems) or incompatibilities which can be reduced or resolved by means of software driver updates.The truth of the matter is that now that almost everyone has some form of internet connection, manufacturers are willing to rely on regular driver updates to address the above issues. This may mean that a piece of hardware or software may well leave the factory with known issues/incompatibilities or with features which aren't quite working right. The manufacturer then depends on the end user updating their driver over the internet when these issues are finally sorted out and a new driver is released. It's not an ideal situation but that's where it currently stands.More commonly though, because some games are released with new and sometimes not thoroughly tested features, certain hardware - particularly graphics and sound cards - will require driver updates to properly utilize these features.As you can see, it is extremely important that you have the latest drivers. Not so much for the sake of "having the latest", but because a great many problems in games and applications are actually resolved in the latest drivers, particularly if the game or application is a popular one.- Microsoft WHQL Certified and Non-Certified Drivers
System Optimization - Device Drivers (Part 2)Device Drivers (Continued)- Microsoft DirectX
System Optimization - Device Drivers (Part 3)Device Drivers (Continued)- Correct Installation Method for Device DriversThis is something which many, many people think they know how to do correctly, but brother, believe me they don't. Even if you're certain of the best method for installing device drivers, read through the following information just to be safe.- General PrecautionsBefore attempting to install any driver, make sure of the following:1. Do not have any other programs running in the background. That means close down any audio players, games, apps - you name it, even if they're not currently active. Open programs can cause problems with driver installs, even if you can't see it straight away. For example an audio player may be using a system audio file which the new driver needs to update, so the file may not be updated as a result. Or a program may cause a memory conflict with the driver installation program. It's just safer to not install a driver while your system is tied up with other tasks.2. Do not have an anti-virus program running in the background. Anti-virus programs are very system intrusive (they have to be to catch viruses), but that also means they're well and truly likely at some point to cause a conflict or prevent full, correct installation. In general you should disable your anti-virus program completely before installing anything - be it a game, application or drivers.3. Make sure your system is set to accept non-WHQL drivers, or at least prompts you about it rather than rejecting them outright. In WinXP this is done by going into Control Panel>System>Hardware>Driver Signing and tick "Warn - Prompt me each time to choose an action" and tick "Make this action the system default". If the driver is non-WHQL you'll see a prompt, but as mentioned earlier, non-WHQL drivers are absolutely fine to install if from a reputable source like the manufacturers listed previously.4. Reduce your overclock to what you know to be a "safe" level, or back to default - whichever one is guaranteed not to corrupt data or result in a freeze. If you read the overclocking section you've heard me nag about this one continuously, but it's true. Being "too" overclocked will result in subtle problems and this could mean a driver looks like it's installed properly when there may well be a corruption in one or more of its files.5. Do not abort an installation once it starts installing - by pressing CTRL-ALT-DEL, or manually resetting/switching off the machine for example. At the point where you see files being copied across, any interruption may cause a corruption of the driver files.6. Reboot as requested. Doing too many things after a driver requests a reboot may cause problems or conflicts resulting in a crash, especially if the system attempts to access the updated files or a function which has changed in the new drivers. Be safe and reboot when asked, or as soon as possible afterwards.7. Finally, if you get errors when trying to run a driver setup program, reboot and retry. In most cases the next time you try and run the file it will work properly. If not, then the driver package may have been corrupted upon download. For example this has happened to me several times because I downloaded a driver from the nVidia site using a download manager (like GetRight, Download Accelerator, etc.) rather than the default Internet Explorer method. Disable your download manager and retry, you'll often find this resolves the problem.- Video Card Driver InstallationWhat follows is an example of how to do a "clean" install of a graphics driver in WinXP. Note that the method will essentially be the same for other Windows OS and most brands of video cards - the aim of the exercise is simply to remove all traces of the existing driver from the system before installing the new one. This is a common cause of graphics and performance-related problems - when different versions of various driver files are being accessed by the system because they were never removed/replaced properly. This is especially true if you switch back to an older version of a driver from an existing newer version.Note that I've written a very comprehensive ATi Catalyst Installation Guide, so if you're an ATi graphics card owner, refer to that guide for more detailed instructions.Now you may tell me there are programs around which purport to do all this for you, such as Detonator Destroyer, but often they don't work for newer versions of drivers (and you have to wait for an update), and even more importantly the method below works just as well, is completely free, and there's no wait, no fuss. The choice is yours but I stick by the following method:1. Download the new driver package for your OS. If it's a zip file, extract the contents to an empty folder. If it's an executable, don't run it just yet. If you have an Nvidia card, follow steps 2 to 4 below first. If you have an ATi card, skip to step 5.2. Go to Control Panel>Display>Settings>Advanced>Adapter>Properties>Driver>Update Driver.3. Select the second option "Install from a list or specific location", then click Next. Select the last option "Don't search. I will choose the driver to install" and click Next. You will see a list of existing graphics drivers for your card on your system. The first one (or two) will be the default "built-in" drivers.4. In Win9x/ME, switch to the Standard VGA driver. In WinXP select the default WinXP graphics driver. This usually has the name of your card followed by (Microsoft) next to it. If not, select the first driver on the list as this should be the default. Once selected click Next. You should see some files being copied - don't interrupt this process - and when prompted, reboot as requested.5. Upon reboot, go to Control Panel>Add/Remove, and uninstall any and all incidences of "display drivers", such as "Nvidia Windows 2000/XP Display Drivers" or "ATi Display Driver". This should correctly remove all the driver components. Reboot as requested.6. If the new driver is in an .exe format, simply run the .exe file to setup. If it's a .zip file, extract the contents as instructed in 1 and execute the Setup.exe file, or if one doesn't exist (e.g. for beta drivers), go through steps 2 and 3 above, but this time select "Have Disk" and point windows to the directory where you unzipped the new drivers. Select the driver .inf file which is displayed and continue.7. Once the above is done Windows should show a "files installing" dialog. Do not interrupt this process, and when completed, reboot as requested.You now have a clean install of whichever driver version you've chosen. If you're running Windows 2000/Windows XP, the refresh rate (number of times the screen redraws itself every second) will be locked at 60Hz (60 frames per second) for every resolution regardless of your monitor/graphics cards capabilities. This is bad for your eyes, reduces game performance and can even slow your mouse down. Use a refresh rate fix such as RefreshForce to resolve this problem quickly and easily. This fix applies to all graphics cards and monitors.- Sound Card Driver InstallationSound card driver installation is very similar, but fortunately much easier. Go to the Control Panel>Add/Remove Programs and uninstall any existing sound drivers listed (e.g. "Sound Blaster Audigy"), and reboot as required. Note than on booting back into Windows you may have no audio. This is normal. Next simply download the driver package, and either extract the contents to an empty folder and run the Setup executable, or run the package itself and it will extract and install automatically.- Motherboard Driver InstallationInstalling these drivers can be tricky, depending on your motherboard chipset and the form in which the drivers come.For Intel chipsets, full instructions for correct installation come in a Readme.txt file which accompanies the file, or can be viewed on the Intel Support Site for each file. Typically you shouldn't do a "clean" install of motherboard drivers. Simply download the program (e.g. Intel Application Accelerator, Intel Chipset Software Installation Utility or VIA Hyperion package) and run the executable, following the prompts. Once installed, reboot as requested.If the drivers come without an executable, or the executable simply extracts a whole bunch of (non-.exe) files, then you will need to search for a Readme.txt (or similar) file which specifies which device the driver is for and manually update the device driver. Then follow the instructions further below.For VIA Chipsets, I have a full VIA Hyperion Driver Guide/FAQ which can be found here, and covers the correct installation and version checking for the VIA Hyperion (4in1s) and all other VIA drivers.If you want to update a specific device manually, or simply check the version of the driver(s) follow these instructions:1. Go to Control Panel>System>Hardware>Device Manager and make sure under the View menu you can see "Devices by Type" selected.2. Find the device(s) you need to update/check. For example, expand the IDE ATA/ATAPI Controllers section and you should see an entry such as "Intel 82801xx Ultra ATA Controller" (which the Intel Application Accelerator updates) or "VIA Bus Master IDE Controller" (which the Hyperions update). You will find other motherboard drivers under the System Devices section.3. Right click on the device and choose Properties, or simply double-click on it, then select the Driver tab to see the driver version currently installed.4. If you want to update this device, first check for an existing version in Control Panel>Add/Remove programs and uninstall it if it's there, rebooting if necessary. Then in the device properties select Driver>Update Driver>Select "Install from a list or specific location", then click Next. Select "Don't search. I will choose the driver to install" and click Next. Select "Have Disk" and point windows to the directory where you unzipped the new drivers. Select the driver .inf file which is displayed and continue.5. You should see a "files installing" dialog. Do not interrupt this process, and when completed, reboot as requested.The above process applies not only to all motherboard chipsets, but for any device where the drivers do not have an executable setup file. If there is a Setup.exe, or the package itself is an executable, run this file as it will correctly install the driver(s) as intended. Do not run this .exe in compatibility mode or any other tricky stuff - this can result in the wrong drivers being installed for your system configuration.That covers the installation of all the major device drivers you will usually update on a regular basis. Other devices may need driver updates but the procedures are the same as those specified above.
System Optimization - ConclusionConclusion
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