Intel's current consumer CPUs have a maximum of 12 threads, with the LGA2011 socket maxing out right now. But, it looks like Intel's upcoming Broadwill CPU will feature up to 18 processing cores.
We shouldn't expect Broadwell until sometime in 2015, so we have a while to wait yet. Intel's upcoming 14nm process will power most of this advancement, with the 18-core Broadwell-EP or EX Xeon chip being based on the shrunken tech. We should expect an 8- or 10-core part for the desktop/workstation market, while a 12- or 16-core part will reach the enterprise market.