Jay Freeman, or Saurik around the jailbreak scene, has brought the Cydia Substrate and WinterBoard to the Google Play Store. While still in their infancy, these apps perform much of the same functions as they do on their iOS counterparts. Soon enough, Google Play will likely fill up with Android themes.
As you would expect, these new apps require your Android device to be rooted, but most Android users who would be interested in these apps have already done that. For now, the Cydia Substrate doesn't do too much, but it should indicate that iOS jailbreak features will eventually make their way over to Android.